The client arrives to your office carrying over 1000 pages of medical records. They are emotional related to the recent loss of their loved one. He was young, the sole bread winner, the strength and back bone of this family. He was quickly taken from their family due to what appears to be a significant MEDICAL ERROR. In order to calm this potential client you agree to review the medical records and they leave your office with a huge relief off their shoulders knowing you are going to fix their
Capnography can detect early phases of respiratory depression which can allow more precise and safe use of medications. Monitoring of exhaled carbon dioxide should be considered for all patients receiving medications that will potentially experience decreased respiratory rates.
The comparison between capnography and pulse oximetry:
Carbon Dioxide Reflects ventilation
Hypoventilation/apnea detected immediately
Reflects ventilation changes within 10 seconds
Should be used with pulse Oximetry
Oxygen saturation Reflects oxygenation
SpO2 changes lag when patient is hypoventilation or apneic
Reflects changes in oxygenation with 5 minutes
Should be used with capnography
History of Capnography
Capnography used by anesthesiologists since the 1970’s and
D-Dimer is a quick, non-invasive blood test that measures substance released as a blood clot breaks up.
It is ordered by a physician along with other blood tests, and imaging scans to help rule out the presence of thrombus, abnormal or excess clotting. Frequently seen ordered if MD suspects DVT/PE or something else causing symptoms.
DVT PE (Pulmonary Embolus)
Leg pain, calf tenderness Sudden Shortness of breath
Leg swelling/edema Labored breathing
Discoloration of the leg Chest pain
Rapid heart rate
D-Dimer is recommended as an adjunct test. It should not be the only test used to